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Joachim Girard
Joachim Girard

Enhancing Lan Using Cryptography And Other Modules 19



Oracle Data Guard has several processes, on the primary database and standby databases, which communicate with each other over the network to manage redo transport and archiving. In certain failure situations, network hangs, disconnects, and disk I/O issues, these processes can hang potentially causing delays in redo transport and gap resolution. Oracle Data Guard has an internal mechanism to detect these hung processes and terminate them thus allowing the normal outage resolution to occur. You can now use two new parameters, DATA_GUARD_MAX_IO_TIME and DATA_GUARD_MAX_LONGIO_TIME, to tune waits times for a specific Oracle Data Guard configuration based on the user network and disk I/O behavior.




Enhancing Lan Using Cryptography And Other Modules 19



Internal processes can access a keystore when the keystore is closed, which allows the internal process to continue and successfully complete by using an intermediate key that is derived from the TDE master encryption key, while the TDE keystore is closed or is otherwise unavailable.


Traditionally we allowed IKEv1 connections for Basic SKUs only and allowed IKEv2 connections for all VPN gateway SKUs other than Basic SKUs. The Basic SKUs allow only 1 connection and along with other limitations such as performance, customers using legacy devices that support only IKEv1 protocols were having limited experience. In order to enhance the experience of customers using IKEv1 protocols, we are now allowing IKEv1 connections for all of the VPN gateway SKUs, except Basic SKU. For more information, see VPN Gateway SKUs. Note that VPN gateways using IKEv1 might experience up tunnel reconnects during Main mode rekeys.


Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage.[19] Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years, there have been numerous reports of confidential data, such as customers' personal records, being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives; encrypting such files at rest helps protect them if physical security measures fail.[20][21][22] Digital rights management systems, which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection), is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.[23]


The question of balancing the need for national security with the right to privacy has been debated for years, since encryption has become critical in today's digital society. The modern encryption debate[40] started around the '90 when US government tried to ban cryptography because, according to them, it would threaten national security. The debate is polarized around two opposing views. Those who see strong encryption as a problem making it easier for criminals to hide their illegal acts online and others who argue that encryption keep digital communications safe. The debate heated up in 2014, when Big Tech like Apple and Google set encryption by default in their devices. This was the start of a series of controversies that puts governments, companies and internet users at stake.


Encryption, by itself, can protect the confidentiality of messages, but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message; for example, verification of a message authentication code (MAC) or a digital signature usually done by a hashing algorithm or a PGP signature. Authenticated encryption algorithms are designed to provide both encryption and integrity protection together. Standards for cryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available, but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. A single error in system design or execution can allow successful attacks. Sometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption. See for example traffic analysis, TEMPEST, or Trojan horse.[41]


While the current CMVP FIPS 140 implementation guidance precludes a FIPS 140 validation for a cloud service, cloud service providers can obtain and operate FIPS 140 validated cryptographic modules for the computing elements that comprise their cloud services. Azure is built with a combination of hardware, commercially available operating systems (Linux and Windows), and Azure-specific version of Windows. Through the Microsoft Security Development Lifecycle (SDL), all Azure services use FIPS 140 approved algorithms for data security because the operating system uses FIPS 140 approved algorithms while operating at a hyper scale cloud. Moreover, you can use Azure Key Vault to store your own cryptographic keys and other secrets in FIPS 140 validated hardware security modules (HSMs).


As described in the security policy, the cryptographic primitives library (BCryptPrimitives.dll) that is covered by the certificate can generate and use keys for the popular AES, RSA, and HMAC SHA algorithms. For example, Azure Storage service encryption uses this library to provide AES-256 data encryption at rest that is enabled by default. The same is true for Azure SQL Database transparent data encryption (TDE) and for encryption in other Azure services. Even though it isn't possible to package and submit Azure Storage or Azure SQL Database to NIST labs for testing and validation, these Azure services and others rely on FIPS 140 validated encryption by using the FIPS 140 validated cryptographic modules in the underlying operating system.


ICMC 2023 will build on a decade of cybersecurity thought leadership as the industry faces widespread changes and emerging threats in commercial cryptography. Post-quantum algorithms are finally here and now the real work of implementation begins. The new FIPS 140-3 standard continues its rollout as the single accepted certification for secure cryptographic modules. Simultaneously, European regulators are moving forward with a wide range of related cybersecurity standards. Efforts to maintain the security of open source solutions continue apace. New approaches to entropy are coming, and the promise of homomorphic cryptography lies ahead.


TDE transparently encrypts data at rest in Oracle Databases. It stops unauthorized attempts from the operating system to access database data stored in files, without impacting how applications access the data using SQL. TDE can encrypt entire application tablespaces or specific sensitive columns. TDE is fully integrated with Oracle database. Encrypted data remains encrypted in the database, whether it is in tablespace storage files, temporary tablespaces, undo tablespaces, or other files that Oracle Database relies on such as redo logs. Also, TDE can encrypt entire database backups (RMAN) and Data Pump exports.


The TDE master encryption key is stored in an external security module (software or hardware keystore). By default, TDE stores its master key in an Oracle Wallet, a PKCS#12 standards-based key storage file. Wallets provide an easy solution for small numbers of encrypted databases. Customers with many Oracle databases and other encrypted Oracle servers can license and use Oracle Key Vault, a security hardened software appliance that provides centralized key and wallet management for the enterprise. It uses industry standard OASIS Key Management Interoperability Protocol (KMIP) for communications. Customers can keep their local Oracle Wallets and Java Keystores, using Key Vault as a central location to periodically back them up, or they can remove keystore files from their environment entirely in favor of always-on Key Vault connections. All network connections between Key Vault and database servers are encrypted and mutually authenticated using SSL/TLS. TDE master keys can be rotated periodically according to your security policies with zero downtime and without having to re-encrypt any stored data. Historical master keys are retained in the keystore in case encrypted database backups must be restored later. Master keys in the keystore are managed using a set of SQL commands (introduced in Oracle Database 12c). For separation of duties, these commands are accessible only to security administrators who hold the new SYSKM administrative privilege or higher. In addition to using SQL commands, you can manage TDE master keys using Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c or 13c. 350c69d7ab


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